当前位置:主页>翻译技巧> 考研英语翻译技巧之状语从句
、时间状语从句   在英语中,时间状语从句的连接词常常有:when(当...的时候),whenever(每当...),as(当...时), since(自从...),until(直到...,如果 不....),till(直到...),before(在...前),after(在...后),as soon as(一...就),once(一旦...),the moment(一...就),immediately( 一...就),the day(在...那天),no sooner... than(一...就),hardly(scarcely)... when(一...就),the instant(一...就),instantly(一... 就),directly(一...就),the minute(一...就),the second(一...就),every time(每当...),by the time(等到....的时候)等。   (一)译成相应的时间状语   While she spoke, the tears were running down.   她说话时,泪水直流。   She came in when I was having supper.   我正在吃饭的时候,她进来了。   As he finished the speech, the audience burst into applause.   他结束讲话的时候,听众掌声雷动。   (二)译成“一(刚、每)...就”的结构   I’ll let you know as soon as I have it arranged.   我一安排好就通知你。   Directly he uttered these words there was a dead silence.   他刚说出这些话,大家就沉默下来。   (三)译成条件句   Turn off the switch when anything goes wrong with the machine.   如果机器发生故障,就把电门关上。   A body at rest will not move till a force is exerted on it.   若无外力的作用,静止的物体不会移动。   We can't start the job until we have the approval from the authority concerned.   如果没有有关当局的批准,我们不能开始这项工作。   二、原因状语从句   英语中,原因状语从句的连接词常常是:because(因为),since(既然,由于),as(因为),now that(既然),seeing that(既然),considering that(考虑到,因为),in that(在某方面),in view of the fact that(鉴于)。   (一)译成表示“原因”的分句,放在主句之前翻译,显示“前因后果”的关系。   The crops failed because the season was dry.   因为气候干旱,作物歉收。   We had to put the meeting off, since so many people were absent.   由于很多人没有来,会议只好延期。   (二)有时候可以用汉语的“之所以...是因为”的结构来连接。   A gas differs from solid in that it has no definite shape.   气体不同于固体是因为(就在于)它没有固定的形状。   He will get promoted, for he has done good work.   他将得到提升,因为他工作干得好。   Theory is valuable because it can provide a direction for practice.   理论之所以有价值,是因为它能给实践指出方向。   (三)not...because的结构   I don’t teach because teaching is easy for me.   我之所以教书并不是因为教书对我来说太容易   三、条件状语从句   英语中连接条件状语从句的连接词常常有:if(如果),unless(除非,如果不),providing that(假如),so long as(只要),on condition that( 条件是),suppose that(假如),in case(如果),only if(只要),if only(但愿,要是...就好了)等。   (一)翻译在主句前面。   It was better in case they were captured.   要是把他们捉到了,那就更好了。   If you tell me about it, then I shall be able to decide.   假如你把一切都告诉我,那么我就能够作出决定。   (二)翻译在主句后面,用来补充说明条件。   You can drive tonight if you are ready.   你今晚就可以出车,如果你愿意的话   No doubt I could earned something if I had really meant to.   毫无疑问,我本来是可以赚到一点的,如果我真有那样打算的话。   四、让步状语从句   英语中,表示让步关系的连接词常常有:though(虽然),although(虽然),even if(即使),as(尽管),while(尽管),whatever(无论什么), wherever(无论哪里),whoever(无论谁),however(无论怎样),no matter(不论,不管),for all that(尽管),granted that(即使),in spite of that fact that(尽管),despite the fact that(不管)等等。   No matter what I say or how I say it, he always thinks I’m wrong.   不管我说什么,也不管我怎么说,他说是认为我错了。   While we can not see the air, we can feel it.   我们虽然看不见空气,但却能感觉到它。   Granted that you don’t like the proposal, you shouldn’t have rejected it without consulting others.   即使你不喜欢这个建议,你也不应该没有同别人商量就把它否决了。   五、目的状语从句   在英语中,连接目的状语从句的连接词常常有:that(为了,以便),so that(为了,以便),lest(以防),in case(以防,以免),for fear that( 以防)in order that(为了)等等。   (一)一般翻译在主句前面。   一般来说,这种表示“为了”的目的状语从句通常放在主句前面翻译。   He pushed open the door gently and stole out of the room for fear that he should awake her.   为了不惊醒她,他轻轻推开房门,悄悄地溜了出去。   We should start early so that we might get there before noon.   为了正午以前赶到那里,我们很早就动身了。   (二)还可以翻译在主句后面,表示“省(免)得”、“以免”、“以便”、“使得”、“生怕”等概念。   He emphasized it again and again, lest she should forget.   他反复强调这一点,免得她忘了。   They hid themselves behind some bushed for fear that the enemy should find them.   他们躲在树丛后面,以防被敌人发现。   六、结果状语从句   (一)英语中,连接结果状语从句的连词常常有:so that, so...that, such...that, to such a degree等等,通常可以翻译为“结果,如此...以致于... ”,可以直接翻译。   He made a wrong decision, so that half of his lifetime was wasted.   他做了错误的决定,结果浪费了自己半生的时间。   The difference is such that all will perceive it.   差别这么大,所有的人都看得出来。(可以省略连接词而不翻译)   (二)有时候,如果在主句中含有“never, never so, not so, not such”等否定词,“but that和but what”也可以连接结果状语从句,构成双重否定。 翻译的时候,可以翻译为“没有...不”。   She never comes but she borrow.   她不借东西不来。(即:他如果不借东西就不来。)   She is not so old but that she can read.   他并没有老到不能读书。